Trustee: legal basis for actions in the interest of a legal person Translations by United Nations translators not only facilitate the work of the Organization, but also document its activities and thus play a crucial role in information and archiving. Do I have to include a disclaimer here? I may do it. It won`t hurt anyway. I am neither a lawyer nor an accountant. It is therefore neither legal nor accounting advice. The information contained here is intended to be useful for translators trying to sort texts in Brazilian Portuguese (or for non-translators trying to understand translated documents), not for investors who want to start a business in Brazil. If you are doing business and want to start a business in Brazil, you should seek the help of lawyers and accountants and, of course, a professional translator. Danilo Nogueira (firstname.lastname@example.org) specialises in accounting, management, taxation and corporate law. He lives with his wife and son in São Bernardo do Campo, an industrial city in the greater São Paulo region. A part-time translator since his youth, he took the plunge in 1970 when he got a job at a large accounting firm.
At the time, he thought assets equalled liabilities because balance sheets were being cooked. He says he`s learned a lot about accounting over the past 28 years. His first task was to collect documents for an English-Portuguese dictionary of business terms to be published by his employers. He was bitten by the lexicography virus and built a 14,000-acre database, to which he is constantly adding new material. It intends to one day publish its database with a dictionary of insurance terms. Danilo freelances for two of the Big Six accounting firms, as well as for local and international banks and organizations. In his late teens, he was denied a place in the public school system because he wasted his science subjects a little too often. Faced with the idea of attending a private school, he decided to drop out of school, arguing that it was bad enough to have to go to school, but that having to pay for it was a bit too much. But he is not an anti-academic, he often speaks in colleges in the greater São Paulo area.
Several of his articles have been published by CITRAT, the Centre for Translation and Terminology Studies of the University of São Paulo and some by the Bulletin of the Institute of Translation and Interpretation (United Kingdom). Apart from translation, his main interest is music. One of his dreams was to translate the works of Donald Francis Tovey, an English musician who was very active in Scotland in the first half of the century. Third group: Sociedades Anônimas The sociedade anônima or sociedade por ações, or, but rarely, companhia has been described as a joint-stock company (as opposed to a sociedade em comandita por ações, which is supposed to correspond to a joint-stock company). Probably a good description. I`ve sometimes seen Brazilian companies that I didn`t like, but the term is getting out of fashion. An S/A can be of fechado capital (closed) or aberto capital (public). In both cases, Share Capital (share capital) is divided into ações ordinárias (ordinary shares) and ações preferenciais (preferred shares), which are held by acionistas (shareholders).
When the text deals with S/A of capital aberto and capital fechado, the nature of the organization is made obvious and the simple company is made as a translation. The S/A are governed by a social estatuto (statutes). In many cases, there are acordos de acionistas (shareholders` agreements) under which shareholders agree or waive mutual rights. For example, shareholders may agree to certain restrictions on their right to freely dispose of their shares. S/A de capital fechado cannot offer securities to the public. This is the privilege of an S/A of capital aberto. To become a capital (to go public), an S/A must file an application with the Comissão de Valores Mobiliários, abbreviated CVM, a federal agency modeled on the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and whose name must therefore be translated as Brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission or something similar. Oddly enough, CVM is often referred to as the Brazilian Securities Commission, by people who think that the stock exchange means exchange in the SEC, which is not the case. The government holds a majority stake in several S/A known as sociedades de economia mista (state-controlled companies), where the economia mista here means partly state-owned and partly private from an economic point of view. Su información personal puede ser procesada en el país en la cual fue recolectada y en otros países, inclusive en los Estados Unidos, donde las leyes relativas a la información personal pueden ser menos restrictivas que las leyes en su país.
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